Organisms can essentially be classified according to two codon patterns.
Okayasu T, Sorimachi K
Amino Acids (2008)
Category: evolution, genomics ¤ Added: Apr 07, 2008 ¤ Rating: ◊◊
We recently classified 23 bacteria into two types based on their complete genomes; "S-type" as represented by Staphylococcus aureus and "E-type" as represented by Escherichia coli. Classification was characterized by concentrations of Arg, Ala or Lys in the amino acid composition calculated from the complete genome. Based on these previous classifications, not only prokaryotic but also eukaryotic genome structures were investigated by amino acid compositions and nucleotide contents. Organisms consisting of 112 bacteria, 15 archaea and 18 eukaryotes were classified into two major groups by cluster analysis using GC contents at the three codon positions calculated from complete genomes. The 145 organisms were classified into "AT-type" and "GC-type" represented by high A or T (low G or C) and high G or C (low A or T) contents, respectively, at every third codon position. Reciprocal changes between G or C and A or T contents at the third codon position occurred almost synchronously in every codon among the organisms. Correlations between amino acid concentrations (Ala, Ile and Lys) and the nucleotide contents at the codon position were obtained in both "AT-type" and "GC-type" organisms, but with different regression coefficients. In certain correlations of amino acid concentrations with GC contents, eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria showed different behaviors; thus these kingdoms evolved differently. All organisms are basically classifiable into two groups having characteristic codon patterns; organisms with low GC and high AT contents at the third codon position and their derivatives, and organisms with an inverse relationship.