Mitochondrial genome sequences and molecular evolution of the Irish potato famine pathogen, Phytophthora infestans.
Avila-Adame C, Gómez-Alpizar L, Zismann V, Jones KM, Buell CR, Ristaino JB
Current Genetics (2006)
Category: mitochondrial DNA ¤ Added: Jan 21, 2006 ¤ Rating: ◊◊
The mitochondrial genomes of haplotypes of the Irish potato famine pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, were sequenced. The genome sizes were 37,922, 39,870 and 39,840 bp for the type Ia, IIa and IIb mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes, respectively. The mitochondrial genome size for the type Ib haplotype, previously sequenced by others, was 37,957 bp. More than 90% of the genome contained coding regions. The GC content was 22.3%. A total of 18 genes involved in electron transport, 2 RNA-encoding genes, 16 ribosomal protein genes and 25 transfer RNA genes were coded on both strands with a conserved arrangement among the haplotypes. The type I haplotypes contained six unique open reading frames (ORFs) of unknown function while the type II haplotypes contained 13 ORFs of unknown function. Polymorphisms were observed in both coding and non-coding regions although the highest variation was in non-coding regions. The type I haplotypes (Ia and Ib) differed by only 14 polymorphic sites, whereas the type II haplotypes (IIa and IIb) differed by 50 polymorphic sites. The largest number (152) of polymorphic sites was found between the type IIb and Ia haplotypes. A large spacer flanked by the genes coding for tRNA-Tyr (trnY) and the small subunit RNA (rns) contained the largest number of polymorphic sites and corresponds to the region where a large indel that differentiates type II from type I haplotypes is located. The size of this region was 785, 2,666 and 2,670 bp in type Ia, IIa and IIb haplotypes, respectively. Among the four haplotypes, 81 mutations were identified. Phylogenetic and coalescent analysis revealed that although the type I and II haplotypes shared a common ancestor, they clearly formed two independent lineages that evolved independently. The type II haplotypes diverged earlier than the type I haplotypes. Thus our data do not support the previous hypothesis that the type II lineages evolved from the type I lineages. The type I haplotypes diverged more recently and the mutations associated with the evolution of the Ia and Ib types were identified.