Discovery of a major D-loop replication origin reveals two modes of human mtDNA synthesis.
Fish J, Raule N, Attardi G
Science (2004)
Category: mitochondrial DNA ¤ Added: Dec 29, 2004 ¤ Rating:
Mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication has long been considered to occur by asymmetric synthesis of the two strands, starting at the multiple origins of the strand-displacement loop (D-loop). We report the discovery of a major replication origin at position 57 in the D-loop of several human cell lines (HeLa, A549, and 143B.TK-) and immortalized lymphocytes. The nascent chains starting at this origin, in contrast to those initiated at the previously described origins, do not terminate prematurely at the 3' end of the D-loop but proceed well beyond this control point, behaving as "true" replicating strands. This origin is mainly responsible for mtDNA maintenance under steady-state conditions, whereas mtDNA synthesis from the formerly identified D-loop origins may be more important for recovery after mtDNA depletion and for accelerating mtDNA replication in response to physiological demands.