Characterization of dynamic and steady-state protein phosphorylation using a fluorescent phosphoprotein gel stain and mass spectrometry.
Schulenberg B, Goodman TN, Aggeler R, Capaldi RA, Patton WF
Electrophoresis (2004)
Category: cell signaling, methods ¤ Added: Aug 27, 2004 ¤ Rating: ◊◊
Protein phosphorylation plays a vital role in the regulation of most aspects of cellular activity, being key to propagating messages within signal transduction pathways and to modulating protein function. Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein gel stain is suitable for the fluorescence detection of phosphoserine-, phosphothreonine-, and phosphotyrosine-containing proteins directly in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gels. The technology is especially appropriate for profiling steady-state and dynamic phosphorylation on a proteome-wide scale, as demonstrated through detection of the native phosphorylation of cardiac mitochondrial phosphoproteins and changes in this profile arising from the activity of a protein kinase. For example, Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein gel stain was employed to demonstrate that among the 46 subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), a 42 kDa subunit is phosphorylated in the steady-state. However, exposure of mitochondria to cAMP-dependent protein kinase increases phosphorylation of this 42 kDa subunit and results in de novo phosphorylation of an 18 kDa subunit as well. Since Pro-Q Diamond dye binds to phosphorylated residues noncovalently, the staining technology is fully compatible with modern microchemical analysis procedures, such as peptide mass profiling by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and post-source decay analysis of peptide phosphorylation.