|Recent advances in mechanisms regulating glucose oxidation at the level of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by PDKs. |
Sugden MC, Holness MJ.
American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism (2003)
Category: metabolism ¤ Added: May 31, 2004 ¤ Rating: ◊◊
The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, linking glycolysis to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acid (FA) synthesis. Knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate PDC activity is important, because PDC inactivation is crucial for glucose conservation when glucose is scarce, whereas adequate PDC activity is required to allow both ATP and FA production from glucose. The mechanisms that control mammalian PDC activity include its phosphorylation (inactivation) by a family of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs 1-4) and its dephosphorylation (activation, reactivation) by the pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatases (PDPs 1 and 2). Isoform-specific differences in kinetic parameters, regulation, and phosphorylation site specificity of the PDKs introduce variations in the regulation of PDC activity in differing endocrine and metabolic states. In this review, we summarize recent significant advances in our knowledge of the mechanisms regulating PDC with emphasis on the PDKs, in particular PDK4, whose expression is linked with sustained changes in tissue lipid handling and which may represent an attractive target for pharmacological interventions aimed at modulating whole body glucose, lipid, and lactate homeostasis in disease states.